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                學術期刊同行評議是與非
                來源: | 作者: | 發布時間:2015-9-12 16:39:31

                近年來,無論學術界還是期刊界,有關同行評議的話題從未中斷過。3月31日,在由中國人民大學主辦、中國人民大學書報資料中心和中國人民大學人文社會科學學術成果評價研究中心承辦的“人文社會科學學術成果評價發布論壇”上,與會專家、學者圍繞同行評議在學界、期刊界的熱點、難點等話題展開討論,以期為學術評價標準和體系的建設擴展思路。

                    “老千里馬選小千里馬”局面應改觀

                    學術界此前總在說“同行承認是學界的‘硬通貨’”,但在中國科學院學部學科發展戰略研究中心主任劉益東看來,這只說對了一半。同行評議對于問世時間較長的成果是有效的,而對問世不久的成果,特別是問世不久的獨創性成果卻是低效率的,往往是非共識的,有時還形成了“不是伯樂選千里馬,而是老千里馬選小千里馬”的局面。

                    武漢大學中國科學評價研究中心主任邱均平認為,人文社會科學同行評議有其特殊性和復雜性。以期刊審稿為例,很多期刊并未建立起規范的同行評議程序,審稿、選稿和用稿還顯得較為隨意。

                    北京大學圖書館文獻計量學研究室原主任蔡蓉華對此表示認同。她認為,人們由于時間、精力、財力的限制,不得不有選擇地利用,有選擇地評價。但由于科學評價的復雜性,評價結果往往難以令人滿意,因此經常會遭到非議。并且,評價標準和程序機械化,也難以保護創新思維,影響合理評價,進而影響到學術期刊對學術新成果的展示。

                    讓大數據在評價體系中發揮作用

                    在談到大數據時代同行評議的實踐時,邱均平表示,大數據環境下的信息采集與傳統的同行評議相比,數據量的增加、數據類型的豐富能從更多方面強化定量分析的精確性、穩定性,數據信息的深度挖掘更提高了計量指標的有效性。同時,還可以增加專家對對象的了解,可以支持交叉學科、支持創新,可以建立完善的專家數據庫,通過隨機方式篩選合適的同行,破解學科限制和學術壟斷,更可以提高同行評價的效率、降低成本。

                    “通過公開實現公平、公正,通過公開實現高效合理顯得尤為重要,而這些在網絡時代是有實現基礎的。開放式的評價可以基本做到以創新論英雄、以突破論英雄,讓優秀人才脫穎而出并發揮作用。”劉益東說。

                    與此同時,中國社會科學院學部委員黃長著也提醒道,網絡環境下的量化評價雖然相對客觀、操作便捷,但由于指標體系的復雜性,在確定各項指標的分值時易受到研制者本身偏好和認知能力的限制。

                    體系建設在驗證中完善和發展

                    在我國近6000種學術期刊中,水平參差不齊,發展并不平衡,如果不能建立全面、客觀、公正并且反映我國學術期刊實際狀況的評價體系,就難以真正把期刊評價轉化為一種激勵機制。

                    蔡蓉華認為,引入網絡同行評議并不是一勞永逸的。雖然開放獲取同行評議和公眾評議能縮短評議周期,突破地理和專業限制,實現評議過程和結果的網上查詢,提高了公開和公正程度,但其有效性、可靠性和其他網絡資源一樣也存在著問題,還有待研究解決。

                    “任何評價機制都不會是完美無瑕的,無論選擇哪種方式都會存在這樣那樣的缺陷,評價機構應該根據評價目的和客觀條件選擇合適的評價方法,才能取得比較理想的評價結果。”蔡蓉華補充道。

                    黃長著也認同這樣的觀點,他認為,要探索包括同行專家主導下融入多項指標在內的綜合評價指標體系,通過實踐反復驗證,在驗證中不斷完善,在完善中求得新的發展。

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