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                再生醫學突破:注入細胞生成功能健全新器官
                來源: | 作者: | 發布時間:2013-9-25 9:29:17


                再生醫學突破:注入細胞生成功能健全新器官


                據國外媒體報道,英國科學家獲得一項重大突破后,一項未來派新療法讓需要進行器官移植的人看到了新希望,患者可以通過該技術培育自己的新器官。

                  專家設法培育出來的細胞,一旦被注入到人體內,就能生成功能健全的新器官。用老鼠進行的這項研究,為未來解決腎臟問題、肝功能衰竭和心臟缺陷等問題找到了新出路。雖然目前它仍處于初期階段,但是這項研究預示著人們向結束對移植器官的依賴邁出的激動人心的一步。負責這項研究的英國愛丁堡大學的克萊爾-布萊克本教授說:“在實驗室里用細胞培育移植器官的能力,是再生醫學里的一個圣杯。通過直接改編細胞的程序,我們已經設法生成一種人造細胞,這種細胞一旦被植入到體內,它們就能形成一個組織完整、功能健全的器官。該研究是在這方面取得的至關重要的第一步勝利。”

                  雖然也曾有人利用干細胞在實驗室工作臺上培育出心臟、肝臟,甚至是大腦等器官的組成部分,但是以前從沒有人在體外利用細胞成功培育出完整的器官。要想證實這種療法對人類患者是安全和有效的,可能還需要10年時間,但是這項研究被奉為是一個激動人心的新突破。該研究成果24日晚發表在《自然細胞生物學》雜志上,研究人員利用這項新興技術,在老鼠身上生長出一個人造胸腺。胸腺是位于心臟附近的一個小器官,它是免疫系統運作的中心環節。這個胸腺從少量細胞開始,慢慢成長為一個完整的器官,最終它的工作方式與在任何一只健康的成年老鼠體內都能看到的胸腺一模一樣。

                  科學家從老鼠胚胎里提取出纖維原細胞,并對它們進行“重新編程”,把它們作為胸腺細胞。該技術實際上意味著這些細胞充當了它們在子宮里的胎兒體內的角色,此時小嬰孩第一次開始生長器官。當把它們與其他類型的胸腺細胞混合在一起并注入到老鼠體內后,這些細胞形成一個移植器官,它擁有與健康的成年老鼠胸腺一樣的結構、復雜性和功能。胸腺通過產生T細胞起作用,T細胞通過掃描體內的故障細胞和感染,達到預防疾病的目的。一旦發現問題,它們就會設法通過免疫響應,努力消滅受損細胞,例如腫瘤,或者是細菌和病毒等病原體

                  每年出生的4000名嬰兒中,就有1個沒有功能健全的胸腺,因此最為重要的是,研究人員發現這些人造胸腺能夠產生T細胞,因此它為這些孩子帶來了生的希望。資助這項研究的英國醫學研究委員會再生醫學負責人羅布-巴克爾博士說:“為受損組織培育移植器官,就不再需要把一個人的完整器官移植給另外一個人,這種方法不僅存在很多缺陷,而且還嚴重缺少捐贈者。這項研究是實現上述目標的一個激動人心的初期步驟,并是證明直接編程技術具有巨大潛能的一個令人信服的實證,采用該技術能把一種細胞改變成另一種細胞。然而,要想在實驗室里再現這一過程,并證實它是一種適用于人類的安全,并受到嚴格控制的有效方法,我們還需要進行更多研究。”

                  24日晚科學界欣然稱這是一項能夠“顯著改變患者的‘生活’”的新發現。倫敦大學學院的克里斯-梅森教授說:“把活細胞作為一種療法具有巨大優勢,細胞的功能性在數量級上遠遠大于常規藥物。沒什么比免疫系統疾病的治療更需要這種水平的功能性。目前的移植方法需要追蹤潛在的捐贈者,而這些人稍后有可能會被證實與患者不配型,或者根本無法及時找到捐贈者,與現在的方法相比,這項新技術的主要優勢就是,它是只需一次的現成的細胞移植。把這項老鼠概念驗證研究轉變成適用于患者的一種安全、有效的常規療法所需的時間和資源,10年間至少需要花費數千萬英鎊。”

                  國家醫學研究院發育遺傳學負責人羅賓-洛弗爾-巴德吉教授說:“這顯然是一項把幾種方法完美結合的極好研究,我們清楚,每一種方法都曾在其他系統中產生作用。不管是從示范如何培育一種器官(雖然是相對簡單的器官),還是從胸腺在發展一個功能正常的免疫系統上所起的至關重要的作用上來說,這都是一項十分重要的成就。”


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